Lobes of the Cerebrum
The cerebral cortex is classified into four lobes, according to the name of the corresponding cranial bone that approximately overlies each part. Each lobe contains various cortical association areas – where information from different modalities are collated for processing. Together, these areas function to give us a meaningful perceptual interpretation and experience of our surrounding environment.
The frontal lobe is located beneath the frontal bone of the calvaria and is the most anterior region of the cerebrum. It is separated from the parietal lobe posteriorly by the central sulcus and from the temporal lobe inferoposteriorly by the lateral sulcus.
The association areas of the frontal lobe are responsible for: higher intellect, personality, mood, social conduct and language (dominant hemisphere side only).
The parietal lobe is found below the parietal bone of the calvaria, between the frontal lobe anteriorly and the occipital lobe posteriorly, from which it is separated by the central sulcus and parieto-occipital sulcus, respectively. It sits superiorly in relation to the temporal lobe, being separated by the lateral sulcus.
Its cortical association areas contribute to the control of: language and calculation on the dominant hemisphere side, and visuospatial functions (e.g. 2-point discrimination) on the non-dominant hemisphere side.
The temporal lobe sits beneath the temporal bone of the calvaria, inferior to the frontal and parietal lobes, from which it is separated by the lateral sulcus.
The cortical association areas of the temporal lobe are accountable for memory and language – this includes hearing as it is the location of the primary auditory cortex.
The occipital lobe is the most posterior part of the cerebrum situated below the occipital bone of the calvaria. Its inferior aspect rests upon the tentorium cerebelli, which segregates the cerebrum from the cerebellum. The parieto-occipital sulcus separates the occipital lobe from the parietal and temporal lobes anteriorly.
The primary visual cortex (V1) is located within the occipital lobe and hence its cortical association area is responsible for vision.